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zkPorter: Composable Scalability in L2 Beyond zkRollup

zkPorter: Composable Scalability in L2 Beyond zkRollup

1 billion blockchain users—a scaling architecture proposal TLDR

We present zkPorter: a new L2 scaling technique combining zkRollup and sharding in a highly scalable yet atomically composable blockchain network.

Problem #1: Throughput ≠ Scalability ⚖️

Throughput is measured in the total transaction volume processed by the network. Scalability is the volume of transactions processed by a single node. zkRollup is arguably the ultimate L2 scaling solution with regards to security and usability. However, zkRollup only offers a ~100x scalability increase compared to mainnet, because transaction data must still be propagated to all full nodes. One could say that zkRollup linearly increases throughput, but offers no way for exponential scalability.

zkRollup can handle up to 3,000 TPS on Eth1, and conservatively — dependent on Eth2 implementation details — at least 20k TPS on a sharded Eth2. This is already a tremendous accomplishment, comparable to Visa’s capacity of up to 24k TPS, but as we aspire to accommodate the billions who are currently unsupported by today’s banking infrastructure, we’re striving for more.

Problem #2: Scalability in Isolation is a Dead-end 🛑

The spectacular rise of DeFi shows that composability is key to success. Composable “money legos”, DeFi applications demonstrate the potential value to be unlocked by layering trustless protocols atop one another. Projects that restrict themselves to their own scaling solutions will find themselves isolated from the safety and network effects of community-shared, composable scaling mechanisms.

Introducing zkPorter 🎉

In this post, we’re presenting a new approach to zk-based scaling that has the potential to solve both of the problems described above: zkPorter.

zkPorter in a Nutshell 🥜

zkPorter is an account-based, trustless scaling protocol secured by succinct zero-knowledge proofs. Similar to oth...

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