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When you send Bitcoin to a wrong address, what actually happens?

I know that you lose your bitcoins, but what actually happens under the hood? The sender wallet removes the bitcoins, then ... what? probably I'm missing a few important steps here, or maybe the transfer is done in a different way, but curious to know what happens in the actual algorithm/program. And what happens if for example you send it to an address that is not created yet (if that makes sense). Also... does the same apply to lightning transfers? And why isn't there interest in having a mechanism that simply doesn't allow the transfer of bitcoins to a wrong/malformed address? Note: by the "wrong" address I'm mostly referring to the "burn addresses" [mentioned here]( Edit: thanks to everyone, this was a great opportunity to think about how bitcoin works, and how amazing it is.
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